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Bibliography: J - R
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Subject Index

 

 

SIALIA Bibliography Subject Index


 

The subjects in the bibliography are indexed here by topic and subtopic. Only general topics are indexed - trail reports, bluebird directories, bird counts, localized projects, annual surveys, and the like are omitted for brevity. Consequently, some titles in the bibliography may not appear in the index. (Unusual records and rare occurrences, however, are indexed under Records.)

Adultery (see also breeding biology)
Albinism
Altruism
Banding
Behavior (see also breeding biology)
Bill
Bird Baths
Bluebird Organizations
Breeding Biology (see also reproduction; sex)
Capture, see Trapping
Cavities, Tree
Chickadee
Color (see also albinism)
Competition (see so specific competitor; pairing)
Copulation
Cuckoldry (see also breeding biology)
Death, see Mortality
Ecology, see breeding biology; behavior
Eggs
Entrance hole
Environment
Eyesight
Feeding (see also altruism)
Flycatcher
Food
Foraging Ecology
Forest Management
Fostering
Genetics
Growth
Guards, Predator
Habitat
Help, see Altruism
Herbicides, see Pesticides
History
Hybrids
Identification
Impacts
Incubation, see Eggs
Insecticides, see Pesticides
Leucism, see Albinism
Mexico
Mice

Migration
Models
Monogamy, see Breeding Biology
Mortality
Nest Boxes (see also nesting boxes; Peterson box; PVC)
Nesting
Nesting Sites
Nesting Success
Pairing (see also swallow)
Parasitism
Perches
Pesticides
Peterson Box
Photography
Polygyny, see Breeding Biology
Population
Power
Predation (see also predators)
Predators
PVC
Races
Records (see also Hybrids)
Rehabilitation
Reproduction (see also breeding biology)
Roosting
Science
Sex
Snags
Song
Sparrows, House
Squirrel
Starlings
Swallows, Tree (see also pairing)
Swallows, Violet-green
Taming
Temperature (see also weather)
Tragedy
Trail Management
Transmitter
Trapping
Usurpation
Weather
Woodpeckers
Wren, House


Adultery (see also breeding biology)
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1. mountain bluebird -- Barash, 1976
2. responses to female adulterer -- Morton, Geitgey & McGrath, 1978

Albinism
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1. eastern bluebird -- Green, 1997; Tucher, 1987
2. eggs -- Gross, 1968
3. eggs of mountain bluebird -- Weydemeyer, 1936
4. fertility of eggs -- Munro, Munro & Rounds, 1981
5. in Alabama bluebirds -- Findlay, 1995
6. incomplete in western bluebird -- Elzroth, 1981
7. leucism in western bluebird -- Ellis & Parrish, 1988
8. Oklahoma Zoo -- Todd, 1988

Altruism
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1. evidence against -- Power, 1975
2. helping by juvenile -- Schutsky, 1980
3. helpers among birds -- Skutch, 1961
4. helping behavior in western bluebirds -- Dickinson, Koenig & Pitelka, 1996
5. helping in western bluebirds -- Dickinson & Akre, 1998
6. immature assists parents -- Renauld & Stoddard, 1992
7. interspecific helpers -- Zingo, 1994
8. juveniles feed new young -- Wetherbee, 1933b
9. male eastern helps female mountain -- Scott, 1971
10. mountain bluebirds -- Emlen & Power, 1976
11. question of -- Power, 1981b
12. searching for in birds -- Power, 1981a
13. violet-green swallows -- Elzroth & Robinson, 1984
14. yearling helps parents -- Pinkowski, 1975b

Banding
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1. as tool to observe nesting -- Laskey, 1943
2. banded bluebird yields facts and speculation -- Tuttle, 1993
3. banding, 1900-1920 -- Pitts, 1994
4. Collyriclum faba: a challenge -- Kibler, 1968b
5. capture techniques -- Gutzke, 1982
6. familial longevity -- Pinkowski, 1974g
7. hand-net capture -- Gutzke, 1981
8. in Ontario -- Krug, 1941
9. no question about -- Jung, 1979
10. part of cooperative project -- Read, 1990b
11. recoveries in South Dakota -- Tallman, 1991
12. recovery -- Chapman, 1942; Potter, 1973
13. recovery data in four states -- Pinkowski, 1971a
14. suggestions at nest boxes -- Yunick, 1990
15. Tennessee bluebird in Alabama -- Laskey, 1955
16. three-year study -- Musselman, 1935
17. tree swallow banding -- Houston & Houston, 1987
18. winter banding-key to migration data -- Patterson, 1979b

Behavior (see also breeding biology)
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1. at nest -- Hartshorne, 1962
2. avia -- Verner, 1975
3. behavior ecology of mountain bluebirds -- Wittbecker, 1987
4. breeding behavior -- Pettingill, 1936
5. behavioral correlates of extra-pair fertilization-- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
6. captive mountain bluebird -- Pinkowski, 1976g
7. cold winter day -- Parker & Parker, 1950
8. comparative study -- Pinkowski, 1974a
9. correlates with uncertain parentage -- Gowaty & Williams, 1989
10. death of a parent -- Zeleny, 1986c
11. foraging -- Pitelka, 1941
12. foraging and sex -- Power, 1974
13. guide to -- Stokes & Stokes, 1989
14. hunting -- Goldman, 1975
15. male response to female foraging skill -- Gowaty & Guinan, 1997
16. mating and demography -- Gowaty, 1980
17. obedience -- Grout, 1924
18. offspring recognition -- Leonard et al., 1995
19. patterns -- Krieg, 1971
20. persistence -- Herbel, 1924
21. polygynous -- Krueger, 1990
22. posture -- Boone, 1984
23. provisioning not related to offspring sex -- Leonard et al., 1994
24. queer -- Gropius, 1947
25. reaction to infertile eggs -- Zeleny, 1981
26. seasonal ethograms -- Belser, 1981
27. territorial responses to house wrens' song -- Dubois, 1997
28. unusual -- Pinkowski, 1980b
29. unusual in nestling care -- Zeleny, 1970

Bill
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1. cross-billed bluebird -- Jewett, 1930

Bird Baths
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1. clay bird baths -- Hegner, 1907

Bluebird Organizations
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1. study of accomplishments -- Lawson, 1991
2. trails conservation group -- Mackintosh, 1994

Breeding Biology (see also reproduction; sex)
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1. year study of productivity -- Bauldry, Muschitz & Radunzel, 1995
2. aggression to potential egg dumpers -- Gowaty & Wagner, 1988
3. aggression -- Gowtay, 1981a
4. analysis of avifaunas -- Salt, 1957
5. belligerence -- Gowaty, 1985
6. bluebirds in barn swallow nest -- Newforth, 1986
7. body mass variation in breeding birds -- Merkle & Barclay, 1996
8. breeding adaptations -- Pinkowski, 1977d
9. breeding ecology -- Pinkowski, 1974a
10. breeding recovery of banded nestling -- Cink,1991
11. breeding season -- Krieg, 1965
12. breeding season, clutch size and success -- Peakall, 1970
13. breeding strategies -- Crowell & Rothstein, 1981
14. breeding survey -- Arcese & Bauldry, 1997
15. breeding the Mexican bluebird -- Gibson, 1993
16. brood size -- Rounds, 1983
17. captive mountain bluebird -- Pinkowski, 1976g
18. care of young -- Sweeny & Belser, 1980
19. cavities vs. boxes -- Purcell , Verner & Oring, 1997
20. changing mates for second brood -- Nice, 1930
21. comparing hole-nesting birds -- Erskine & McLaren, 1976
22. courtship -- Zeleny, 1971a
23. courtship feeding between two males -- Pinkowski, 1977c
24. displacement -- Power, 1979
25. domestic vicissitudes -- Robinson, 1928
26. ecological analysis -- Salt, 1953
27. ecology of eastern bluebird -- Fiedler, 1974
28. effects of male removal -- Meek & Robertson, 1994a
29. effects of x-irradiation -- Norris, 1958
30. environmental effects -- Brawn, 1991
31. evidence of mate guarding in western bluebirds -- Dickinson & Leonard, 1996
32. extra-pair fertilizations -- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
33. extra pair paternity in western bluebirds -- Dickinson & Akre, 1998
34. extra pair paternity revealed by DNA -- Meek, Robertson and Boag, 1994
35. factors in expansion of breeding range -- Ligon, 1969
36. fidelity to nest box and pair bonding -- Hoffman & Pletz, 1988
37. floater males -- Meek & Robertson, 1992
38. getting to know -- Clement, 1987
39. how to attract and raise -- Dew & Layton, 1986
40. in bristlecone pines -- Medin, 1984
41. in cavity nesting birds -- Pogue & Carter, 1995
42. in ponderosa pines -- Brawn, 1985
43. intersexual variation -- With & Balda, 1990
44. limiting factors of recovery -- Wigen-Ayers, 1994
45. male detention affects extra-pair copulation -- Dickinson, 1997
46. male escorting and protecting -- Powers, 1980b
47. male rearing broods -- Tucker, 1990
48. male removal -- Macdougall-Shackleton, Robertson & Boag, 1996
49. mate changing -- Grimm, 1967
50. mate guarding due to competition -- Meek & Robertson, 1994b
51. mate guarding and nest guarding -- Gowaty & Williams, 1989
52. mate guarding, paternity and paternal care -- Macdougall, `1995
53. mating besides polygyny -- Gowaty, 1981b
54. mating systems -- Verner & Willson, 1969
55. multiple maternity and paternity -- Gowaty & Karlin, 1984
56. multiple parentage -- Karlin, Smith, Stephens & Barnhill, 1990; Simpkin, 1992
57. natal dispersal, patterns of -- Plissner & Gowaty, 1996
58. nesting habits -- Kendall, 1981; Musselman, 1946; Myers, 1912; Pitts, 1976
59. nesting habits and development -- Donahoe, 1939
60. nestling needs in heat -- Tuttle, 1989b
61. overlap of two broods -- Gowaty, 1983b
62. pair bonds -- Pinkowski, 1974b
63. parental care -- Kendeigh, 1952; With, 1988
64. parental care and monogamy -- Gowaty, 1983a
65. parental investment, maintenance of monogamy -- Meek, 1993
66. paternity and paternal care -- Macdougall-Shackleton & Robertson, 1998
67. paternity and paternal investment -- Kempenaers, Lanctot & Robertson, 1998
68. polyandry -- Laskey, 1947
69. polygynous behavior -- Krueger, 1990
70. premature fledgling -- Davis, 1994
71. relationship of steroid hormones -- Buschhaus, 1997
72. separation of dependent fledgling -- Pinkowski, 1976b
73. sex-biased provisioning; metabolism -- Droge, Gowaty & Weathers, 1991
74. time and energy budgets -- Buser, 1980
75. tremble-thrusts -- Pinkowski, 1979a
76. two females, one male, fledge eight -- Oakley, 1996; Reed, 1992
77. western bluebirds -- Aylesworth, 1987b; Eltzroth, 1983
78. where fledglings go -- Zeleny, 1987

Cavities, Tree
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1. abundance in red maples -- Boyer, 1976
2. artificial: alternative to nest boxes -- Gano & Mosher, 1983
3. device for examining -- Seidensticker, Kilham & Kilham, 1969
4. snags for secondary nesters -- Cunningham, 1977
5. turning dead tree into house -- Johnson, 1993
6. use -- Pinkowski, 1976a

Chickadee
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1. associated with nuthatches -- Kilham, 1976
2. bluebird hatched and raised by chickadees -- Krueger, 1989; Murphy, 1968
3. bluebirds raise chickadees -- Zinko, Murphy & Rosgen, 1994 & 1995
4. fed by bluebird -- Bender & Bender, 1983
5. hatch and raise bluebird -- Krueger, 1989; Murphy, 1968

Color --see also albinism)
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1. cause of blue in blue jay and bluebird -- Gower, 1936
2. of eggs -- Hutchinson, 1943

Competition (see also specific competitor; pairing)
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1. bluebird vs. downy -- Christman, 1924
2. bluebirds, swallows, wrens -- Reed, 1924
3. bufflehead, bluebird and tree swallow -- Erskine, 1964
4. chickadee -- Goldberg, 1969
5. cowbird -- Painter, 1950
6. deer mouse -- Swenson, 1968
7. double and triple nest boxes -- Gillis & Prescott, 1985
8. eliminating starlings with trap -- Zimmerman, 1985
9. evaluation of nest box sites -- Parren, 1991
10. female bluebird -- Chaplin & Chaplin, 1987
11. female attacks starling -- Solem, 1995
12. flycatchers and titmice compete -- Prescott, 1983
13. flying squirrel -- Stabb, Gartshore & Aird, 1989
14. house wrens -- Varner & Bird, 1975
15. inhibiting bluebird production -- Davis, McComb & Allaire, 1986
16. interspecific: swallows, wrens -- Tuttle, 1991a
17. interspecific: violet-green swallows -- Brawn, 1990
18. intruders -- Gowaty, 1981a
19. mate guarding due to competition -- Meek & Robertson, 1994b
20. nest box use -- Parren, 1989
21. other things in house -- Craven, 1991
22. pairing to reduce -- Prescott, 1982
23. preliminary study -- McLaren, 1963
24. red-cockaded woodpecker -- Jackson, 1978
25. reducing bluebird-swallow -- Prigge, 1981; Prigge, 1982
26. slot-entrance excludes starlings -- McComb, Davis & Allaire, 1987
27. sparrow thwarted by experimental box -- Patterson, 1979
28. starling -- Zeleny, 1968c; Zerhuse, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1992
29. starlings and nest sites -- Davis & McComb, 1989
30. swallows in post-fire areas -- Taylor, 1982
31. tree swallow in bluebird box -- Schwilling, 1990
32. tree swallow nest site -- Cohen, 1976
33. western bluebirds, tree swallows and violet-green swallows -- Gillis, 1989
34. wrens -- Waring, 1912; Zeleny, 1986c

Copulation
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1. flycatcher and bluebird -- Alsop, 1971

Cuckoldry (see also breeding biology)
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1. and human adultery -- Power, 1980a
2. avoiding -- Erickson & Zenone, 1978
3. experiments on -- Power & Doner, 1980
4. kleptogamy not a substitute -- Power, 1984
5. males avoiding, female dominance -- Power, 1979

Eggs
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1. albinistic -- Gross, 1968
2. air cell development and mass changes -- Pitts, 1995
3. attempt to increase number -- Nash, 1942
4. clutch size -- Crowell & Rothstein, 1981
5. color -- Hutchinson, 1943
6. DDT residues in bluebird and flicker eggs -- Olson, Meeker & Henny, 1977
7. effect of nesting history -- Pinkowski, 1979e
8. eggshell changes during incubation -- Pitts & Martin, 1989
9. fertility of albinistic -- Munro, Munro & Rounds, 1981
10. incubation -- Zeleny, 1974b
11. incubation by male -- Findlay, 1989b
12. incubation period -- Butcher, 1988
13. miniature -- Zeleny, 1983b
14. prolonged incubation -- Pinkowski, 1974c
15. reaction to infertile -- Zeleny, 1981
16. runt -- Mulvihill, 1981
17. time of day of laying -- Meek & Robertson, 1995
18. time budget and incubation rhythm -- Pinkowski, 1979b
19. unusual eggs on Oregon trail -- Eltzroth, 1995
20. unusual western -- Hayes, 1985
21. western bluebird -- Prill, 1892
22. white, of mountain bluebird -- Weydemeyer, 1936

Entrance hole
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1. allowing starling entrance -- Lehmann, 1997
2. large -- Aylesworth, 1984
3. preferred size for mountain bluebird -- Haterman, 1988
4. size for mountain bluebird -- Zeleny, 1985a
5. slot attitude preferences -- Black, 1998
6. slot-entrance excludes starlings -- McComb, Davis & Allaire, 1987

Environment
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1. education -- Pearman, 1986
2. effects on reproductive traits -- Brawn, 1991
3. effects of high-voltage powerlines -- Doherty & Grubb, 1996
4. environmental correlates of extra pair fertilization -- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
5. landscape modification, patch selection in clearcuts -- Holt & Martin, 1997
6. responses to -- Linsdale, 1938
7. studies during construction of golfing community -- Holliman, 1997

Eyesight
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1. bluebird -- Preston & McCormick, 1948
2. contrasting oculomotor strategies -- Wallman & Pettigrew, 1985

Feeding (see also altruism)
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1. allocation of time and energy -- Mock, 1991
2. bluebird feeder -- Robertson, 1979
3. chickadee by bluebird -- Bender & Bender, 1983
4. easy feeding -- Zickefoose, 1997a
5. feeder experiment -- Nalisnik & Nalisnik, 1992
6. interspecific -- McNair, & Duyck, 1991
7. juveniles feed new young -- Wetherbee, 1933b
8. male eastern helps female mountain -- Scott, 1971
9. mealworm box -- Coleman, 1995
10. mocking bird nestlings by bluebird -- Carr & Goin,1965
11. mountain bluebird young -- Grass, 1970
12. need for -- Finch, 1987
13. nestlings and fledglings -- Pinkowski, 1978d
14. nestlings by juveniles -- Dew & Dew, 1987
15. on winter stoneflies -- Pinkowski, 1976f
16. rate influences fledgling -- Plissner, Gowaty & Lanham, 1987
17. sheltered feeder -- Gourlay, 1979
18. starling-proof feeder -- Green, 1986
19. training to use feeder -- Cromack, 1987
20. two males at same nest -- Pinkowski, 1978a
21. watering ponds -- Evans & Krebs, 1977
22. yearling helps feed -- Pinkowski, 1976b

Flycatcher
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1. ash-throated raises bluebird -- Simpkin & Gubanich, 1991
2. great crested, copulating -- Alsop, 1971

Food
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1. bird -- Forbes, 1903
2. bluebird -- Boone, 1979; Davison, 1962
3. cold weather -- Pitts, 1979
4. energy allocation to reproduction, maintenance -- Garcia, Merkle & Barclay, 1993
5. guide to good habits -- Martin, Zim & Nelson, 1951
6. insects for mountain bluebid -- Knowlton & Harmston, 1946
7. monitoring intake -- Kaprielian, Dierenfeld & Pickarz, 1996.
8. multiflora rose hips -- Huber, 1981
9. nestling -- Pitts, 1978b
10. of uncommon birds -- Cottam & Knapper, 1939
11. peanut hearts -- Fast, 1955
12. plant succession -- Hamilton & Noble, 1975
13. plantings -- Blackburn, 1991b; Grant, 1979
14. robin and bluebird -- Bealt, 1915
15. seeds for bluebird trails -- Tuttle, 1979
16. tree seeds -- Eastman, 1960
17. western & mountain bluebird -- Herlugson, 1982
18. winter feeding -- Sheldon, 1997
19. winter plants -- Pitts et al., 1989

Foraging Ecology
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1. behavior -- Pinkowski,1977b; Pitelka, 1941
2. behavior and sex -- Power, 1974
3. behavior and sexual differences -- Power, 1980c
4. geographic variation in oak woods -- Block, 1990
5. habitat utilization -- Pinkowski, 1979d
6. hover foraging of western bluebirds -- Herlugson, 1983b

Forest Management
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1. avian communities in coniferous forest -- Wiens, 1976, 1978
2. avifauna and succession in Douglas-fir - Meslow & Wigth, 1975
3. benefits of fire -- Lowe, 1975
4. bird population after timber harvesting --Franzerb, 1977
5. bud communities in coniferous forest -- Snyder, 1950
6. clearcuts -- Wilde, 1977a
7. clearcutting effects on birds and mammals -- Ambrose, 1975
8. decay, snags, and hole-nesting birds -- McClelland, 1977
9. effects in pine forests -- Wood & Niles, 1978
10. effects on cavity nesters -- Zarnowitz & Manuwal,1985
11. fire and birds -- Marshall, 1963
12. fire and logging effects on birds -- Pinkowski, 1977a
13. fires and nesting cycles -- Taylor, 1979
14. for hole-nesting birds -- McClelland, Fischer, & Halvorson, 1977
15. fragmentation: effect on population -- Rottings, 1979
16. identifying for hole-nesting birds - McClelland & Frissel, 1975
17. influence of succession on animals -- Hooven, 1969
18. insectivorous birds -- Beebe, 1974
19. landscape modification, patch selection in clearcuts -- Holt & Martin, 1997
20. life history and reproduction in deciduous forests -- Brewer & Swander, 1977
21. managing cavity trees -- DeGraff & Shigo, 1985
22. non-game birds -- Canutt & Poppino, 1978
23. oak-pine, oak-hickory -- Evans, 1978
24. plant succession -- Hamilton & Noble, 1975
25. ponderosa pine snags -- Scott, 1978
26. productivity and habitat preference on managed land -- VanHorn & Bacon, 1989
27. rangeland avifaunas -- Wiens & Dyer, 1975
28. regulation of insect Carlson, 1976
29. snags, fires, insects, diseases and decay -- Fischer & McClelland, 1983
30. wildlife and western juniper -- Maser & Gashwiler, 1977
31. wildlife habitats in managed forests -- Thomas, 1978

Fostering
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1. adoption by replacement males -- Meek & Robertson, 1991
2. ash-throated flycatcher raises bluebird -- Simkin & Gubanich, 1991
3. bluebirds fledge from sparrow's nest -- Huber, 1993
4. bluebirds fledge robin -- MacNeil, 1991
5. bluebird hatched and raised by chickadees -- Krueger, 1989; Murphy, 1968
6. bluebirds raise chickadees -- Zinko, Murphy & Rosgen, 1994 & 1995
7. by female mountain bluebird -- Hayes, Felton & Cohen, 1985
8. by sparrows -- Sturm & Zeleny, 1977
9. foster parents -- Barber, 1996
10. orphans & foster parents -- Germond, 1991
11. pygmy nuthatch feeds nestlings -- Pinkowski, 1980a
12. robin from bluebird box -- MacNeil, 1991
13. swallows by male bluebird -- Naber & Naber, 1990
14. transplanting orphans -- Hiller & Boozer, 1982
15. tufted titmouse egg by bluebird -- Acopians, 1990

Genetics
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1. evolutionary -- Avise, Patton & Aguadro, 1980

Growth
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1. age-dependent changes -- Gard & Hooper, 1993
2. aspartic acid indications of age -- Hunter, 1989
3. body mass variation in breeding birds -- Merkle & Barclay, 1996
4. development -- Pinkowski, 1975c
5. energetics in different-aged fledglings -- Mock, Khubesrian & Larcheveque,1991
6. growth of birds that fledge at different ages -- Mock, Khubersrian & Larcheveque, 1991
7. nestling mountain bluebirds -- Herlugson, 1983a
8. photoperiodic effect on molt -- Pinkowki, 1976c
9. reliability of aging by feathers -- Plissner, Wagner & Gowaty, 1994
10. reproduction energetics -- Mock, 1990

Guards, Predator (see also predation, predators)
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1. Bird Guardian tests -- Berner, 1991
2. cat and 'coon guard -- Fitzgerald, 1994
3. cat and 'coon guard update -- Fitzgerald, 1995
4. deterrent devices -- Berner, 1990
5. experimental snake guard -- Hoffman, 1986
6. guards -- US Fish & Wildlife, 1976
7. guard foils -- Hatchings, 1991
8. Jim Noel's cat and coon guard -- Noel, 1991
9. Noel guard stops raccoons -- Barber, 1993
10. raccoon guard experiments -- Sedlacek, 1987
11. raccoon guards -- Curtis, 1991
12. snake guard -- Kingston, 1991
13. snake trap -- Krueger, 1991a
14. update on Noel guards -- Barber, 1996
15. wooden -- Cohen, 1998

Habitat
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1. avian community associates -- Niemi & Jannmuller, 1979
2. bluegrass -- Davis, 1989
3. characterizations of -- Pogue & Schnell, 1994
4. clearcut pine plantation -- Hurst, 1979
5. clearcutting -- Ambrose, 1975; Conner & Adlisson, 1974
6. coniferous forest -- Wiens, 1975, 1978
7. creating a summer oasis -- Shalaway, 1997
8. disturbance and decline in pine barrrens -- Kerlinger & Doremus, 1981
9. effects of microhabitat on nest box selection, productivity -- Scott, Lockwood & Moulton, 1993
10. forest management for birds -- Canutt & Popino, 1978
11. geographic variation on western bluebird -- Ridgway, 1894
12. home range in South Carolina -- Hugh, 1988
13. influence of characteristics on box selection -- Horn et al., 1996
14. irrigated river valleys -- Newhouse, 1960
15. lodgepole pine forest -- Austin & Perry, 1979
16. managed forests -- Thomas, 1979
17. management -- Verner, 1975
18. managing for hole-nesting birds -- McClelland, Fischer & Halvorson, 1977
19. oak-hickory forest -- Hardin & Evans, 1977
20. oak-juniper -- Balda, 1969
21. pine forests -- Brawn, 1987a
22. pine plantations -- Hurst, 1983b
23. ponderosa pine -- Balda, 1969; Brawn, 1985
24. preference -- Devlin & Willner, 1982
25. preference on managed lands -- VanHorn, & Bacon, 1989
26. relationship of birds and plant succession, -- Meslow, 1978
27. Savannah River -- Allen, 1988
28. seasonal home ranges -- Savereno, 1991
29. snag, old growth and riparian -- Bull, 1978
30. structure -- Wilson, 1974
31. structure around nests -- Otello, 1982; Otello & Finn, 1982
32. suitability -- Lancia & Adams, 1985
33. use -- Allen, 1988
34. utilization and foraging -- Pinkowski, 1979d
35. vegetation structure -- Balda, 1975
36. vertical utilization of -- Sweeny, 1981
37. woodpeckers in forest burn -- Harris, 1982

History
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1. banding, 1900-1920 -- Pitts, 1994
2. bluebird conservation -- Zeleny, 1983a
3. cavity-nesting birds -- Adkisson, 1988
4. complicated -- Wetherbee, 1933a
5. establishing -- Tuttle, 1989a
6. factors affecting natural increase -- Brewer & Swander, 1977
7. North American Birds -- Baird, Brewer & Ridgway, 1974
8. philosophical, natural -- Hutchinson, 1943
9. thrushes -- Bent, 1949

Hybrids
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1. eastern x mountain -- Gatz, Quanrud & Randell, 981; Lane, 1968a; Lane, 1968b; Rounds & Munore, 1982
2. hybrid bluebird in Todd County -- Millard, 1994
3. mountain x eastern -- Steblay, 1986; Aylesworth, 1987a
4. Nebraska -- Wilson et al., 1985
5. nesting in Manitoba -- Spear, 1975
6. Pine Ridge -- Minyard, Bray, Wilson & Minyard, 1985
7. update -- Wilson, Minyard & Minyard, 1986

Identification
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1. of second year and after -- Pitts, 1985
2. reliability of aging by feathers -- Plissner, Wagner & Gowaty, 1994

Impacts
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1. avian on pinyon-juniper -- Balda, 1987
2. of human visitations -- Bart, 1977

Mexico
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1. new Sialia -- Oberholer, 1917
2. new birds -- Anthony, 1889
3. new races of Sialia -- Moore, 1939

Mice
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1. in nest boxes on interstates -- Hsu & Humpert, 1988; Hsu & Peterle, 1989

Migration
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1. autumn in central south -- Purrintgon, 1979
2. autumn in Hudson-Delaware area -- Paxton, Boyle & Cutter 1983, 1978
3. autumn, maritime -- Forster, 1987
4. Christmas -- Layton, 1989
5. fall in South Dakota -- Tallman & Montgomery, 1979
6. fall migrants attracted -- Potter, 1968
7. flyways -- Escott, 1987
8. return rates -- Bauldry, Biemborn & Arcese -- 1996
9. robins and thrushes in Calgary -- Butot, 1978b
10. spring in maritimes -- Vickery, 1980
11. spring in middlewestern prairie -- Kleen, 1979
12. spring in midwest prairie -- Peterjohn, 1982
13. spring in prairie province -- Gollop, 1984
14. spring in Quebec -- Gosselin, 1983
15. times -- Little, 1993
16. winter banding, key -- Patterson, 1979b

Models
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1. for snag-nesting birds -- Balda, Gaud & Brawn, 1983
2. use of Mayfield Method to predict daily survival -- Schmidt, 1993

Mortality
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1. bluebird -- Blake, 1954; Musselman, 1941
2. broken necks -- Broman, 1995
3. carbaryl suspected -- Kreuger, 1988
4. longevity records -- Klimkiewicz, Clapp & Futcher, 1983
5. of banded bluebirds -- Pitts & Snow, 1996
6. red squirrel -- Allan, 1978
7. snowstorm-related -- Eller, 1988
8. tick paralysis -- Pitts & Hayes, 1990
9. tragedies -- Gardner, 1926
10. western bluebirds -- Eltzroth, 1983
11. winter roost -- Pitts, 1978c

Nest Boxes (see also nesting boxes; Peterson box; PVC)
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1. analysis of use by mountain bluebirds -- Monroe, 1981
2. artificial cavity alternative -- Gano & Mosher, 1983
3. availability, effect on breeding -- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
4. better housing project -- Schrieber, 1938
5. black bear damage -- Tardell & Doerr, 1982
6. blowfly reduction -- Campbell, 1982
7. bluebird and other species -- Kelly, 1968
8. buoy bird box -- Navtratil, 1998a
9. building -- Browning, 1988; Carter, 1938; Zeleny, 1986a
10. choice by swallows, wrens, bluebirds and starlings -- Lumsden, 1986
11. clay -- Hegner, 1907
12. clearcut pine plantation -- Hurst, Warren & Grant, 1979
13. comparison of styles -- Berner, 1995
14. defense by western bluebirds -- Brawn, 1984
15. designing better -- Pitts, 1978a
16. easily made -- Woodward, 1973
17. easy to clean -- Bullerman, 1992
18. effects of not monitoring -- Davis, 1993b
19. effects of size on nest -- Pitts, 1988b
20. eight-year survey -- Peterson, 1969
21. experimental -- Bittner, 1997: Campbell, 1984; Sloan, 1970
22. field tests of several styles -- Berner & Pleines, 1993
23. front-opening design -- Pollock, 1988
24. front-opening with slot -- Tuttle, 1990
25. hanging -- Navratil, 1998
26. homes for birds -- US Fish & Wildlife, 1979
27. importance of location -- Zeleny, 1985b & 1988
28. influence of habitat on nest box selection -- Horn, et al., 1996
29. interpretive -- Tuttle, 1981
30. Kentucky -- Hurst, 1984
31. loblolly pine plantation -- Hurst, 1983a
32. making sparrow-free -- Varner, 1964
33. mounting -- Prescott, 1982
34. new box to discourage sparrows -- Theisinger, 1984
35. new for highway rights-of-way -- Peterson, 1987
36. observation of small -- Mighton, 1982
37. observations -- Kenitz, 1991
38. Ohio interstates -- Hsu & humpers, 1988; Hsu & Peterle, 1989
39. orientation and spacing -- Parren, 1994
40. plastic jugs -- Stewart, 1976b; Zeleny, 1983c
41. platforms -- Burtt, 1979
42. plea for -- Clark, 1904
43. preferences -- Lumsden, 1989
44. protection from predators -- Patterson, 1981
45. reinforcing with wire cable -- Cohen, 1984
46. restrictor -- Gutzke, 1983a
47. seasonal conversion -- Macbeth, 1993
48. selection of artificial -- Munro, Munro & Rounds, 1985
49. shallow slotbox -- Davis, 1992
50. sign mounted work -- Tuttle & Caldwell, 1985
51. slash pine plantation -- Caine & Marion, 1991
52. sparrow inhibiting -- Davis, 1993c
53. sparrow use of small box -- Trickey, 1984
54. sparrows shun -- Baxter, 1982
55. specifications -- Stiles, 1992
56. squirrel damage to -- Wilde, 1977b
57. success of mountain and western bluebird -- Caddell, 1992
58. temperatures -- Patterson, 1980
59. tree branch box -- Zuern, 1994a, b, 1995, 1997
60. tree swallow extra-pair paternity, not an artifact of nestboxes -- Barber, Robertson & Boag, 1996
61. type to use -- Grant, 1988
62. unusual designs -- Bittner, 1993
63. use of -- Kristensen et al., 1997; Tomlinson & Haines, 1980
64. utilization by bluebird & wren -- Patterson, 1969
65. utilization of -- Maunz & Morris, 1979
66. white or black for bluebirds; sparrows -- Pitts, 1977
67. wooden, for cavity nesters -- Gary & Morris, 1980
68. wooden, in bluegrass -- Davis, 1989

Nesting
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1. bluebird -- Harper, 1926
2. bluebird in cliff swallow nest -- Preston, 1938; Weeks, 1995
3. cavity nesters -- Ditman, 1995
4. destruction by house wrens -- Belles-Isles & Picman, 1996
5. early -- Stevenson, 1932
6. eastern bluebird -- Hamilton, 1943
7. function of sticks in house wren nests -- Alworth, 1996
8. habits -- Stockard, 1905
9. impact from humans -- Bart, 1977
10. in dryer vent -- Koonz, 1993
11. late -- Ripy, 1974; Whiteman, 1946
12. materials used -- Tate, 1926
13. mountain bluebirds -- Bardon, 1991
14. northern Idaho -- Hand, 1939
15. notes on -- Low, 1933
16. observations by bird banding -- Lasey, 1942
17. on mined lands -- Allaire, 1976
18. over water -- Tuttle, 1991d
19. re-mating -- Broderick, 1938
20. study -- Laskey, 1939b; Rustad, 1972a
21. study of mountain bluebird -- Haecker, 1948
22. success in parkways -- Atkinson, 1990
23. tree swallow study -- Rustad, 1972b
24. triple -- Taylor, 1984
25. unusual -- Sprunt, 1946
26. unusual mountain bluebird -- Murie, 1934
27. miles to renest -- Scott & Lane, 1974

Nesting Sites
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1. attachment to and reproductive efficiency -- Pinel, 1980
2. between-year site fidelity -- Ingold, 1996
3. characteristics of western bluebird -- Sims, 1983
4. dipper nest by mountain bluebird -- Calder, 1970
5. evaluation of -- Parren, 1991, 1992
6. fenceposts -- Pierson & Scanlon, 1986
7. forest edge selection by tree swallows -- Rendell & Robertson, 1990
8. hat trick -- Elphinstone, 1986
9. investigating by video camera -- Proudfoot, 1996
10. livestock guards help -- Tuttle, 1982
11. mountain bluebird in Cimarron County (OK) -- Shackford & Grisby, 1993
12. natural vs. artificial -- Brawn, 1988
13. natural, of mountain bluebird -- Thompson, 1987
14. nest box sites, selection by bluebirds, swallows, wrens -- Parren, 1991
15. nest-site relationships among cavity-nesting birds -- Dobkin et al., 1995
16. oil burners -- Partin, 1958
17. old nest material, effects on tree swallow nest choice & building -- Rendell & Verbeck, 1996c
18. on mined lands -- Allaire, 1979
19. partitioning in oak woodland -- Owens, 1984
20. ponderosa made for bluebirds -- Pinkowski, 1981
21. remote natural -- Kiviat, 1982
22. selection -- Kruger, 1985a; Pinkowski, 1970c
23. selection by mountain bluebirds -- Herlugson, 1981
24. selection in high forest drainage -- Li & Martin, 1991
25. selection of artificial -- Rounds, 1985
26. tree swallow -- Cohen, 1976
27. treeless lava flows -- Rich, 1984
28. unusual -- Horn, 1969; McCaha & Bay, 1998
29. use by cavity nesters -- Gauthier & Peterson, 1985
30. utilization of natural -- Pierson, 1978

Nesting Success
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1. breeding season and clutch size -- Peakall, 1970
2. causes of failure -- Peters et al., 1998
3. comparison of old and new trails -- Cousineau & Morse, 1986
4. dispersal dependent on -- Gowaty & Plissner, 1997
5. effects of old nest material on tree swallow success -- Rendell & Verbeck, 1996
6. guide to -- Scriven, 1989
7. guide to attracting -- Stokes & Stokes, 1991
8. in clearcuts -- Conner & Adkisson, 1974
9. in high forest drainage -- Li & Martin, 1991
10. in house under construction -- Laskey, 1971
11. in Myles Standish State Forest -- Carter, 1992
12. in Orange County, CA -- Purvis, 1997
13. influenced by carbaryl -- Bednarck & Davidson, 1967
14. insecticides as factor -- Jaco & Hulse, 1963
15. long term study -- Radunzel et al., 1997
16. key to cause of failure -- Pinkowski, 1975a
17. mountain bluebird management -- Shantz, 1986
18. notes -- Bowman, 1960
19. techniques to improve -- Swanson, 1980
20. unsuccessful -- Quinn, 1956
21. western bluebird -- Sims, 1983

Pairing (see also swallow)
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1. attraction to -- Plissner & Gowaty, 1995
2. bluebird-swallow balance -- Boone, 1982
3. double and triple boxes -- Gillis & Prescott, 1985
4. double nesting -- Orthwein, 1998
5. experience with paired boxes -- Eno, 1997
6. friendly competition -- Toops, 1995
7. nesting activity & feeding patterns -- Palahniuk, 1994; Palahniuk & Bakko, 1995
8. observations -- Berner, 1998
9. success -- Gardner & Stiles, 1985
10. to reduce competition -- Prescott, 1982

Parasitism
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1. acanthocephalan -- Thompson-Crowley et al., 1979
2. arthropods in nest boxes -- Eckerlin, 1996
3. blowflies -- Johnson, 1932; Mason, 1944; Roby, Brink & Wittman, 1992; Zeleny, 1986d
4. blowflies and nestling development -- Wittman, 1990
5. blowflies and parasitic wasps -- Darling & Thomas-Delaney -- 1993
6. blowflies in natural and artificial nests -- Pinkowski, 1977e
7. blowfly effects on nestlings -- Wittmann & Beason, 1992
8. blowfly larvae -- Demas, 1989
9. blowfly larvae, fire ant predation -- Sims, 1995
10. conspecific nest -- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
11. control in nest boxes -- Jackson, 1985a
12. cowbird -- Friedman, 1934; Pinkowski, 1974f
13. cowbird, brown-headed -- Woodward & Woodward, 1979
14. eastern bluebird -- Roberts, 1981
15. ectoparasites, old nest material -- Rendell &Verbeck, 1996a
16. endoparasitism -- Elzroth, Cromack & Thompson-Cowley, 1980
17. external parasites -- Peters, 1936
18. in starling -- Musselman, 1942
19. insects -- Kenaga, 1961
20. invertebrate fauna in nests -- Chow, Burtt & Johnston, 1983
21. nasal mites -- Pence, 1973a, 1973b
22. nematodes -- Pence, 1972
23. nest box to reduce blowflies -- Campbell, 1982
24. northern fowl mites -- Neece, 1990
25. removal of old nest material -- Johnson, 1996; Pacejka & Thompson, 1996
26. role of arthropods -- Jackson, 1985b
27. trematodes -- Kibler, 1968b, 1968c; Pinkowski, 1976e
28. worms in nasal passages -- Hyland & Ford, 1962

Perches
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1. natural -- Betts, 1980

Pesticides
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1. carbaryl on nesting success -- Bednarak & Davidson, 1967
2. carbaryl suspected in death -- Kreuger, 1988
3. contamination and eggshell characteristics -- Den, 1985
4. DDT and bluebird and wren nestings -- Thomas & McClusky,1974
5. DDT effects on wren and bluebird reproduction -- McClusky, Thomas & Meslow, 1977
6. DDT residues in eggs -- Henny, Olson & Meeker, 1977
7. dioxin sludges and wild birds -- Thiel et al., 1988
8. effects of 2, 4, 5-T on birds -- Martin, 1966
9. effects of toxins -- King, 1998
10. embryotoxicity -- Nosek et al., 1993
11. herbicides, dead tree swallows -- Stiles, 1992
12. insecticides as factor in nesting success -- Jaco & Hulse, 1963
13. organochlorine contaminants in foodweb -- Hebert et al., 1994.
14. rotene for boxes -- Potter, 1967
15. use in nest boxes -- Kruger, 1985b
16. use near birds -- Jackson, 1985a

Peterson Box (see also nest boxes)
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1. about the box - Scriven, 1998
2. dissecting the box -- Berner, 1998
3. entrance hole -- Davis, 1997
4. starlings find box no challenge -- Kridler, 1990
5. testing -- Davis, 1995b

Photography
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1. of bluebird -- Hegner, 1899

Population
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1. breeding density in ponderosa pines -- Brawn, Boeklen & Balda, 1987
2. causes of decline -- Prescott, 1980
3. census methods -- Pinkowski, 1982
4. changes after timber harvesting -- Franzerb, 1977
5. decline -- Atkinson, 1974
6. dispersals -- Tuttle, 1991b, 1991c
7. demographic correlates of extra pair fertilization -- Gowaty & Bridges, 1991
8. eastern bluebirds density in southeast -- Dupree, 1985
9. effects of winter on -- Pitts, 1978d
10. effects of 2, 4, 5-T on -- Martin, 1966
11. estimates of trends -- Geissler & Noon, 1981
12. factors influencing in Manitoba -- Miller, 1970
13. fire effect -- Clark, 1935
14. five-year experience -- Sister Barbara Ann, 1970
15. fluctuations -- Pitts, 1981
16. historical changes -- Pitts, 1984
17. increase in mountain bluebirds -- Henderson, 1903
18. influence of forest succession -- Hooven, 1969
19. lowland hard communities -- Samson, 1979
20. nest sites limit -- Brawn & Balda, 1988
21. New Mexico -- Tatschl, 1967
22. pine habitat -- Brawn, 1985
23. rebound in Mississippi -- Murray, 1993
24. recent trends -- Sauer & Droege, 1990
25. seasonal densities in pinelands -- Guillory, Allen, Stagg & Parris, 1989
26. status of birds in Alaska -- Ritchie & Ambrose, 1992
27. status in Oklahoma -- Tylker & Bechtold, 1996
28. sympatric western and mountain bluebirds -- Herlugson, 1980
29. trends -- Andrews & Bock, 1979
30. western and mountain bluebird in Washington -- Herlugson, 1978
31. winter abundance -- Root & Andrews, 1981

Power
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1. reply to -- Barash, 1980

Predation (see also guards and predators)
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1. avian, on nestlings -- Pearman, 1991
2. black rat snake -- Hensley & Smith, 1986
3. bluebird on shrew -- Pinkowski, 1974d
4. bluebird vs. meadow vole -- Sindelar, 1967
5. bluebirds and thrasher on snake -- Flanigan, 1971
6. by house sparrow -- Gowaty, 1984
7. eastern chipmunk -- Miller, 1968
8. enemies -- Lane, 1971
9. gopher snake attraction to nests -- Eichholz & Koenig, 1992
10. kestrel on nestling bluebird -- Havera & Havera, 1983
11. netting, protection from snakes -- Blair, 1993
12. nest lowering to prevent -- Read, 1988
13. new threats -- Robbins, 1988
14. possible by ants -- Hurst, 1980a
15. possible by fire ants -- Hurst, 1980b
16. protection -- Bole, 1905
17. PVC elbow -- Cash, 1990
18. raccoon, tests -- Berner, McGettigan & Krieger, 1991
19. reducing -- Boone, 1981
20. snake -- Laskey, 1946
21. sparrow hawk -- Drinkwater, 1953
22. tangletrap for snakes -- Davis, 1988
23. wren on eggs and nestlings -- Quinn & Holroyd, 1989

Predators
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1. birds on spruce beetles -- Baldwin, 1968
2. deer mouse -- Swenson, 1968
3. discouraging -- Fuerst, 1988
4. experiments with raccoons -- Davis, 1993a
5. female sparrow on nestlings -- Zeleny, 1984a
6. protecting nest box from -- Patterson, 1981; Wood, 1996
7. raccoons -- Davis, 1995a
8. raccoon, cat and squirrel -- Cash, 1990
9. snakes -- de Waard, 1984

PVC
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1. house attracts bluebirds, not sparrows -- Gilbertson, 1991
2. nest boxes, sparrow resistant -- Kriedler, 1988
3. plastic elbow vs. predation -- Cash, 1990
4. PVC nest box update -- Gilbertson, 1993

Races
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1. middle-American bluebird races -- Webster, 1973
2. new Sialia in Mexico -- Moore, 1939; Oberholster, 1917
3. new birds in Mexico -- Anthony, 1889
4. new bluebird in El Salvador -- Dickey & van Rossen, 1930
5. new in Mexico -- Anthony, 1889
6. new in North America -- Bangs, 1898
7. new subspecies from Nicaragua -- Howell, 1965

Records (see also Hybrids)
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1. early nesting -- Taylor, 1947
2. early, 1945 and 1946 -- Brigham, 1946
3. eastern bluebird in Alberta -- Butot, 1978a; Salt, 1978
4. eastern bluebird in Long Islang -- Black, 1970
5. eastern female in Alberta -- Horn, 1985
6. longevity -- Kennard, 1975
7. Minnesota's first mountain bluebird nest -- Janssen, 1990
8. mountain and western bluebird, winter in Montana, -- Weydermeyer, 1935
9. mountain bluebird in Illinois -- Bohlen, 1982
10. mountain bluebird in Iowa -- Livingston, 1985; Thelen, 1989; Van Dyk, 1981
11. mountain bluebird in Michigan -- Ilnicky, 1984
12. mountain bluebird in Minnesota -- Hiemenz, Voth & Friedrich, 1935; LaFond, 1978; Olin, 1943
13. mountain bluebird in Mississippi -- Whittington, 1980
14. mountain bluebird in North Carolina -- Boozer, 1986
15. mountain bluebird in North Dakota -- Kermott, Field & Trott, 1974
16. mountain bluebird in Okalahoma -- Riggs, 1956
17. mountain bluebird in Pennsylvania -- Wiltraut, 1986
18. mountain bluebird in Washington -- Edson, 1926
19. mountain bluebird in Wisconsin -- Brandel, 1984; Feeney; 1968; Follen, 1980; Idzikowski, 1988
20. mountain bluebirds, winter in Montana -- Weydemeyer, 1929
21. Northwest Territories -- Lok & Vank, 1986
22. southernmost mountain bluebird -- Church, 1982
23. western bluebird in Alberta -- Elphinstone, Spalding, & Bargman, 1984
24. western bluebird in Oklahoma -- Carter, 1971, 1972
25. wintering bluebird in British Columbia -- Weber et al., 1983

Rehabilitation
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1. bluebird rehabilitation -- Schaefer, 1984

Reproduction (see also breeding biology)
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1. annual productivity, measurement -- Pinkowski, 1979g
2. effects of DDT on -- McCuskey, Thomas & Meslow, 1977
3. effects of density -- Brawn, 1987b
4. effects of life history factors -- Brewer & Swander, 1977
5. effects of winter on -- Pitts, 1978d
6. environmental effects -- Brawn, 1991
7. error in adoption -- Plissner & Gowaty, 1988
8. fourth nesting -- Krueger, 1991b
9. growth energetics -- Mock, 1990
10. in pine plantations -- Hurst, 1983b
11. mountain bluebird -- Swenson, 1985
12. productivity -- Kruger, 1985a
13. productivity and habitat preference -- Van Horn & Bacon, 1989
14. site of attachment of -- Pinel, 1980
15. three broods -- Johnson, 1983

Roosting
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1. communal in winter -- Frazier & Nolan, 1959
2. monitoring in winter -- Green, 1987
3. roosting boxes, banding in winter -- Patterson, 1979b
4. winter site management -- Tuttle, 1987b

Science
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1. helps bluebird -- Arehart-Treichel, 1983

Sex
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1. criteria for sexing juveniles -- Pinkowski, 1974e
2. evolution of foraging behavior -- Power, 1974
3. identification of females -- Dunn, 1981
4. intersexual variation -- With & Balda, 1990
5. manipulation of sex ratios -- Gowaty, 1991
6. ratios -- Lombardo, 1982
7. sex-biased provisioning -- Droge, Gowaty & Weathers, 1991
8. sexual dimorphism -- Verner & Willson, 1969

Snags
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1. artification in slash pine plantations -- Caine & Marion, 1991
2. cavities for secondary nesters -- Cunningham, 1977
3. for cavity nesters -- Conner, 1978
4. hole-nesting birds -- McClelland, 1977
5. loblolly pine nesting boxes in -- Hurst, 1983a
6. management -- Bull, 1978; Evans & Conner, 1979

Song
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1. bluebird as mimic -- Saunders, 1887
2. development -- Haartshorne, 1962
3. mountain and western bluebird -- Weydemeyer, 1934
4. mountain bluebird -- Lumley, 1934
5. observations on vocalizations -- Pinkowski, 1971b
6. spectrogram classification -- Pinkowski, 1996

Sparrows, House
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1. as foster parents -- Sturm & Zeleny, 1977
2. begging calls, individual & sex variation in -- Mock & Koenig, 1997
3. competition thwarted by experimental box -- Patterson, 1979
4. foiling -- Davis, 1991
5. kills nestlings -- Zeleny, 1984a
6. making trail sparrow-free -- Varner, 1964
7. predation by -- Gowaty, 1984
8. removal of nests -- McGrath, 1987
9. solenoid trap for -- Green, 1990
10. shun nest box -- Baxter, 1982
11. trap for -- Green, 1984; Therrien, 1996
12. use of small box -- Trickey, 1984
13. white or black boxes? -- Pitts, 1977

Squirrel
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1. damage to nest boxes -- Wilde, 1977b
2. flying squirrel competition -- Stabb, Gartshore & Aird, 1989
3. mortality of red -- Allan, 1978

Starlings
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1. age-dependent changes in bluebirds, starlings -- Gard & Hooper, 1993
2. choice of nest box -- Lumsden, 1986
3. eliminating with trap -- Zimmerman, 1985
4. movements -- Stewart, 1976a
5. nest site competition -- Zerhause, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1992
6. nest sites -- Davis & McComb, 1989
7. Peterson box no challenge to starlings -- Kridler, 1990
8. relation to other species -- Ferguson, 1936
9. slot-entrance excludes -- McComb, Davis & Allaire, 1987
10. starling-proof feeder -- Green, 1986
11. tests on hole sizes allowing entrance -- Lehmann, 1997

Swallows, Tree (see also pairing)
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1. AGT feather care "boxes" -- Olorenshaw, 1996
2. balance with bluebirds -- Boone, 1982
3. banding -- Houston & Houston, 1987
4. bluebirds -- Hersey, 1933
5. breeding season -- Krieg, 1965
6. choice of nest box -- Lumsden, 1986, 1989
7. effects of late snowstorm -- Houston, 1982
8. nest site characteristics of natural cavities -- Rendell & Robertson, 1989
9. nest site selection -- Cohen, 1976
10. nesting in bluebird box -- Schwilling, 1990
11. nesting study on bluebird trail -- Rustad, 1972b
12. old nest material, effects on tree swallow nest choice, building -- Rendell & Verbeck, 1996c
13. Oregon, Washington and British Columbia -- Gillis, 1989
14. pairing to reduce competition -- Prescott, 1982
15. raised on bluebird trail -- Bartel, 1981
16. six-year study -- Tuttle, 1987a
17. tree swallow extra-pair paternity, not an artifact of nestboxes -- Barber, Robertson, & Boag, 1996
18. use of bluebird trail -- Halvorsen & Bacon, 1983

Swallows, Violet-green
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1. interspecific competition -- Brawn, 1990
2. Oregon, Washington and British Columbia -- Gillis, 1989

Taming
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1. bluebirds -- Bartlett, 1941
2. bluebirds in captivity -- Butler, 1907

Temperature (see also weather)
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Back to Bibliography
1. effects on nesting dates -- Brittner, 1990
2. nesting boxes -- Patterson, 1980; Zeleny, 1968a

Tragedy
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1. bird -- Baker, 1942

Trail Management
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1. impact of trail size on productivity -- O'Halloran, 1996
2. Connecticut Bluebird Restoration Project -- Rosgen & Zingo, 1993
3. guide to success -- Scriven, 1993
4. how to establish a trail -- Scharabok, 1997
5. in upper midwest -- Scriven, 1989
6. teaching -- Tuttle, 1994c & 1994d

Transmitter
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1. home range determined by radio telemetry -- Sloan & Carlson, 1980
2. package -- Allen & Sweeney, 1989
3. tail-mounted -- Pitts, 1995

Trapping
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1. automatic, for nest box -- Stewart, 1971
2. bluebirds lured to ground traps -- Nolan, 1954
3. capture techniques -- Gutzke, 1982
4. device for roosting birds -- Jackson, 1977
5. eliminating starlings -- Zimmerman, 1985
6. habituation of bluebirds to trap -- Pinkowski, 1978b
7. hand-net capture -- Gutzke, 1981
8. hole-nesting birds -- Fischer, 1944
9. house sparrows -- Green, 1984; Therrien, 1996
10. radio-controlled -- Kibler, 1968a
11. removing sparrows from top-opening box -- Krueger, 1985
12. simple nest box trap -- Stutchbury & Robertson, 1986
13. snake trap -- Krueger, 1991a
14. solenoid -- Green, 1990
15. variations on sparrow trap -- Trickey, 1984

Usurpation
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1. by second pair of bluebirds -- Pitts, 1986
2. nuthatch evicts bluebirds -- Hartley, 1989
3. sapsucker nest holes -- Erskine & McLaren, 1972

Weather
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1. cold snaps -- Musselman, 1939
2. cold weather killing nestlings -- Zeleny, 1986b
3. early spring snowstorm -- Pitts, 1988a
4. effects of winter on population and reproduction -- Pitts, 1978d
5. food during cold -- Pitts, 1979
6. ice storm -- Laskey, 1951
7. June cold takes toll -- Prescott, 1975
8. late snowstorm -- Houston, 1982
9. long, hot summer -- Power, 1989
10. needs of nestlings in heat -- Tuttle, 1989b
11. severe winter -- Pinkowski, 1979f
12. severe winter and populations -- Graber & Graber, 1979
13. snowstorm in Alabama -- Findlay, 1993
14. snowstorm mortality -- Eller, 1988
15. spring weather a killer -- Corkran, 1992
16. survival at -20o -- Harris, 1990
17. winter -- Zeleny, 1977b
18. winter in Great Lakes -- Powell, 1988
19. winter in maritimes -- Vickery, 1982
20. winter season in midwest prairie -- Peterjohn, 1983
21. winter 1961-1962 -- James, 1962

Woodpeckers
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1. DDT residue in flicker eggs -- Olson, Meeker & Henny, 1977
2. habitat use in forest burn -- Harris, 1982
3. use of bluebird nest box -- Sims, 1998

Wren, House
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1. and nesting bluebirds -- Hempel, 1919
2. choice of nest box -- Lumsden, 1986
3. coping with -- Pollock, 1989
4. DDT affects reproduction -- McCluskey, Thomas & Meslow, 1977
5. down with wren boxes -- Sherman, 1925a
6. function of sticks in house wren nests -- Alworth, 1996
7. nest destruction -- Belles-Isles & Picman, 1996
8. pro and con -- Swanson, 1926
9. problem of wren -- Sherman, 1925b
10. problems -- Zeleny, 1985c
11. removal of old nest material -- Johnson, 1996
12. tragedy -- Frost, 1925
13. vs. bluebirds -- Gardner, 1920; Varner & Birds, 1975; Waring, 1912

 

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